Normal Gross Motor Development

Birth – 3 months:

  • Holds chest up in prone
  • May roll stomach to back
  • Rolls back to stomach

Rolling back to stomach - may occur later because we do not place our children on their stomachs to sleep and therefore they are not playing in this position as earlier as children were in the past

3 – 6 months:

  • Hold head up in supported sitting
  • Rolls
  • Weightbearing on forearms, elbows, and hands when on stomach
  • Reaching with one arm when on stomach
  • Gross motor skills start to emerge at 4 months therefore increase floor time

Concerns: arching back – this prevents normal development

6 – 9 months:

  • Transitions into sitting from all fours
  • Sits independently
  • Uses trunk rotation
  • Pulling up to knees
  • Crawling
  • Protective reactions
  • More floor time – develop proximal control in shoulders for use later (handwriting)
  • Look for a variety of movement patterns

Spend less time in walkers and saucers — these increase toe walkers

9 – 12 months:

  • Crawls
  • Side sits
  • Pull to stand
  • Cruises
  • Stands independently
  • Lowers self with control

We are not concerned with leg position (bowlegs, pigeon toes) until after a child has been walking for 3 years
Concerns: No mobility

12 – 18 months:

  • Walks
  • Walks upstairs with one hand held
  • Throws a ball

A child cannot develop skills unless they are exposed to them

18 – 24 months:

  • Moves on ride toy (without pedals)
  • Walks down stairs with one hand held
  • Kicks ball forward
  • Runs
  • Picks up toy from floor without falling

Concerns: not walking

24 – 36 months:

  • Jumps on both feet
  • Jumps from bottom step
  • Walks up and down stairs
  • Rides tricycle
  • Catches ball
  • Stands on one leg
  • Walks on tiptoes

36 – 48 months:

  • Refinement of all skills
  • Jump higher, farther>
  • Catch smaller ball, throw at smaller target
  • Single limb balance longer
  • Walk farther on toes

48 – 60 months:

  • Skipping
  • Continued refinement of all skills
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